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亚搏下注软件_蒙古国,重新学习蒙古文
发布人: 薇草食品 来源: 薇草食品公司 发布时间: 2021-01-03 12:06:01

亚搏下注软件_蒙古国,重新学习蒙古文

On March 18, 2020, the Mongolian government officially adopted the "National Outline for Mongolian Characters". The outline plans to fully resume the use of Uighur Mongolian (that is, traditional Mongolian) from 2025. Before that, the press and publishing industry must do it. Cyrillic Mongolian and Uighur Mongolian are used bilingually, and civil servants will also participate in training in old scripts.

2020年3月18日,蒙古政府正式通过了《蒙古文字国家纲要》。该大纲计划从2025年起完全恢复维吾尔族蒙古语(即传统蒙古语)的使用。在此之前,新闻出版业必须做到这一点。西里尔语蒙古语和维吾尔语蒙古语是双语使用的,公务员也将参加使用旧文字的培训。

At that time, both Cyrillic Mongolian and Uighur Mongolian will be used in national official documents, and Uighur Mongolian will be used in the future.

届时,西里尔文蒙古文和维吾尔文蒙古文都将用于国家正式文件中,而维吾尔文蒙古文将在将来使用。

Throughout history, the spread of all kinds of Mongolian scripts cannot be separated from the promotion of political forces. Mongolian script history and political history are intertwined, and the return of Uighur Mongolian scripts is the same now.

在整个历史上,各种蒙古文字的传播都离不开政治力量的发展。蒙古文字史和政治史交织在一起,现在维吾尔族蒙古文字的归来也一样。

Before Genghis Khan unified all the Mongolian tribes and Mongolia quickly emerged, due to the small activity space of ethnic groups, small scale of social organization, small scale of economic activities, and less social interaction, oral communication could meet daily needs, and Mongolian language has not yet appeared. Corresponding words, people use carved wood notes to deepen their memory when they need to record.

在成吉思汗统一之前,由于各族裔的活动空间小,社会组织规模小,经济活动规模小,社会交往少,蒙古族部落和蒙古很快就出现了,口头交流可以满足日常需求,并且蒙古语言尚未出现。相应的单词,人们在需要记录时使用雕刻的木质音符来加深记忆。

Peng Daya, the book magistrate of the Southern Song Dynasty mission, left a more detailed record of this phenomenon in his own record of "Bl亚搏下注软件ack Tartar History": "Only small wood, three or four inches long, with four corners carved, and it is as short as ten horses. , Then engrave ten engravings, and only engrave only a few of them. It is vulgar and dedicated, so the language is not bad, and the liar of Sfa is dead, so don’t dare to deceive.” It is also mentioned in "Miscellaneous Records of the Government and the Wild Since Jianyan" :"Tatar also has no words. Whenever the troops are sent out, the grass will be made as an appointment, so that people will be eager for the spark. Or break the wood as a contract, engrave a number of strokes, take half of each, and the army will use the wood as the test." .

彭大亚,南宋宣誓书的治安官,在他自己的《黑Tar历史》记录中更详细地记录了这一现象:“只有三到四英寸长的小木头,刻有四个角,像十匹马一样短,然后刻十个刻,只刻几个。刻薄而专心,所以语言也不错,Sfa的骗子死了,所以不敢欺骗。”在《建炎以来的政府与野外杂记》中也提到:“ Ta语也无言。每当部队被派出时,都会安排草地,以便人们渴望火花。或将木料折成契约,刻上许多笔画,每笔画一半,然后军队将使用木料作为考验。”

With the gradual rise of Mongolia, social organization has become more complex and the space for activities has become larger. The absence of words will obviously increase the communication cost in all aspects of economy, politics, military, society, and culture, restricting the speed of development, and words have become Mongolians. Just needed. But how to create a kind of native language is a complicated systematic project.

随着蒙古国的逐步崛起,社会组织变得越来越复杂,活动空间也越来越大。文字的缺失显然会增加经济,政治,军事,社会和文化各个方面的交流成本,限制了发展的速度,文字已成为蒙古人。只是需要。但是如何创建一种本地语言是一个复杂的系统工程。

With the gradual unification of the various parts of Mongolia and the expansion of the scope of activities, the Mongolians have become increasingly close to other ethnic groups. Some Mongolians naturally borrow the scripts of neighboring ethnic groups, such as the Uyghur script when they communicate with the Uighurs in the west; the Southeast and Liao. Chinese characters were often used in the exchanges between Jin Guo and the Southern Song Dynasty, and Jin Guo Jiangchen played a significant role in promoting Chinese characters.

随着蒙古各地的逐步统一和活动范围的扩大,蒙古人与其他民族的距离越来越近。一些蒙古人自然会借用邻近民族的文字,例如与西方维吾尔人交流时的维吾尔文字;东南和辽。金国与南宋之间的交流经常使用汉字,而金国江臣在促进汉字方面发挥了重要作用。

Uighur and Mongolian are both agglutinative types, with many phonetic similarities, while Uighur scripts have been around for four centuries and are relatively mature. The area controlled by the Naiman tribe is close to the Uighurs, and the political and economic exchanges with the Uighurs are more frequent. They have access to the Uighur script earlier than the Qiyan Ministry led by Genghis Khan and have a better grasp of the Uyghur script. They even appointed the Uighurs as the chief seal officers to manage personnel. Appointment and finance, in fact, have used Uighur text to help management.

维吾尔文和蒙古文都是凝集型,在语音上有许多相似之处,而维吾尔文的文字已经存在了四个世纪,而且相对成熟。奈曼部落控制的地区靠近维吾尔族,与维吾尔族的政治和经济往来更加频繁。他们比成吉思汗领导的祁延部更早地获得维吾尔文文字,并且对维吾尔文文字有了更好的了解。他们甚至任命维吾尔人为首席海豹警官来管理人员。任命和财务实际上使用了维吾尔语文本来帮助管理。

The event that played a decisive role in the production of Mongolian was Temujin's conquest of Naiman. After the Naiman tribe was conquered in 1204, the Uyghur Tata Tonga, the palm seal officer, was appointed to teach the four sons of Temuzhen to spell Mongolian in Uyghur script. Two years later, Temujin, who conquered various ministries, was awarded the title of Genghis Khan and began to appoint someone to edit documents in Uighur-style Mongolian to record customary laws and Genghis Khan's speech, marking the official Uyghur Mongolian language becoming the national language of Mongolia.

铁木真征服奈曼是蒙古生产中起决定性作用的事件。 1204年,奈曼部落被征服后,掌海豹官维吾尔族塔塔·汤加被任命教特木真的四个儿子用维吾尔文书写蒙古语。两年后,征服各个部委的铁木真被授予成吉思汗头衔,并开始任命某人以维吾尔式蒙古语编辑文件,以记录习惯法和成吉思汗的讲话,这标志着维吾尔族蒙古语正式成为本国语言。蒙古

After Kublai Khan won the Khan position, the Greater Mongolian State was essentially divided. How to assist the Yuan Dynasty to manage and consolidate its rule in the actual control area became a practical problem. In order to facilitate the accurate translation of various characters, Kublai Khan ordered the national teacher Ba Si Ba to create a new Mongolian character. The result was called Ba Si Ba in later generations. If it is used to spell Mongolian, it is called Ba Si Ba Mongolian.

忽必烈汗(Kubblai Khan)夺取汗职后,大蒙古国基本上分裂了。如何协助元朝在实际控制地区进行管理和巩固其统治成为一个现实问题。为了促进各种汉字的准确翻译,忽必烈命令国民教师巴思巴创建一个新的蒙古语汉字。其结果在后来的世代中被称为Ba Si Ba。如果用于拼写蒙古语,则称为Ba Si Ba Mongolian。

The Pinyin script created on the basis of Tibetan can be directly translated into Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, Uighur, and Sanskrit. It was praised by later Soviet historians as the international alphabet in the 13th century. This advanced writing has also been vigorously promoted by the government. Literacy classes are quickly opened in various places and are open to both Mongolian and Han people. Students can be exempted from military service and learn well.

以藏文为基础创建的拼音文字可以直接翻译成藏文,蒙古文,中文,维吾尔文和梵文。后来的苏联历史学家称赞它为13世纪的国际字母。政府也大力提倡这种先进的写作方式。扫盲班在各地迅速开放,对蒙古族和汉族都开放。学生可以免于服兵役,学习得很好。

But the Basipa script also has defects. It is different from the natural formation process of the Uighur Mongolian script. It originated entirely from the personal will of the ruler. The national teacher Ba Siba is proficient in Tibetan and Sanskrit, but does not include the Mongolian language, so it does not consider the adhesion of the Mongolian language. The characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mongolian dialects, and the complex fonts, without punctuation, are not convenient in actual use. This character was basically abolished with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, and only some lamas continued to use it.

但是Basipa脚本也有缺陷。它不同于维吾尔族蒙古文字的自然形成过程。它完全源于统治者的个人意愿。国民教师Ba Siba精通藏语和梵语,但不包括蒙古语,因此未考虑蒙古语的黏附性。蒙古方言的特点和特殊情况以及字体复杂,不带标点的实际使用不方便。随着元朝的灭亡,这个人物基本上被废除了,只有一些喇嘛继续使用它。

However, the Uighur Mongolian script still maintains its vigorous vitality and is gradually improved in the process of using it. The 14th century linguistic work "Mengwen Enlightenment" standardized the grammar and writing standards of Uighur Mongolian script, which promoted the development of this script. By the 17th century, the font and grammar of Uighur Mongolian script had undergone major changes. A large number of dictionaries, grammar books and other works appeared, which eventually evolved into the Hudumu Mongolian language used by the Inner Mongolians.

但是,维吾尔族蒙古文字仍然保持着旺盛的生命力,并且在使用过程中逐渐得到改善。 14世纪的语言文学作品《蒙文启蒙》规范了维吾尔族蒙古文字的语法和书写标准,从而促进了该文字的发展。到17世纪,维吾尔族蒙古文字的字体和语法发生了重大变化。大量的字典,语法书籍和其他作品出现了,最终演变成内蒙古人使用的呼都木蒙古语。

While the Mongolians in our country still use Uighur Mongolian script, Mongolia started to implement another script system-Cyrillic Mongolian as early as 1940.

虽然我们国家的蒙古人仍然使用维吾尔族蒙古文字,但蒙古最早于1940年开始实施另一种文字系统-西里尔语蒙古语。

The so-called Cyrillic Mongolian is Mongolian written in Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic alphabet is also known as the Cyrillic alphabet. In the 9th century AD, the Byzantine priests Saint Cyril and Mefuji created the Glagolitic alphabet based on the Greek script in order to facilitate the spread of Christianity to the Slavic peoples to translate the Bible. Later, the Glagolitic alphabet was gradually standardized and systemized after a century of evolution, forming the Cyrillic alphabet today.

所谓的西里尔语蒙古语是用西里尔字母写的蒙古语。西里尔字母也称为西里尔字母。在公元9世纪,拜占庭神父圣西里尔(Saint Cyril)和梅富士(Mefuji)根据希腊文字创建了格拉戈利特字母,以促进基督教向斯拉夫人民的传播,以翻译圣经。后来,经过一个世纪的发展,格拉古里字母逐渐被标准化和系统化,形成了如今的西里尔字母。

As the broad sense of Christianity split into God and the Orthodox Church, Cyrillic texts became Orthodox teachings and began to prevail in countries and regions dominated by the Slavic peoples. The official scripts of Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and other countries are all Cyrillic.

随着广泛的基督教意识分裂为上帝和东正教,西里尔文字成为东正教教义,并开始在斯拉夫民族统治的国家和地区盛行。俄罗斯,乌克兰,塞尔维亚,保加利亚和其他国家的官方文字均为西里尔字母。

Around the 1930s, the Soviet Union carried out writing reforms for many ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union, replacing the original ethnic minority alphabets with Cyrillic alphabets. Ethnic groups including Kazakh, Uzbek, Dungan, Chechen, etc. all switched to Cyrillic at that time. Alphabet.

大约在1930年代,苏联对苏联的许多少数民族进行了书面改革,用西里尔字母代替了原来的少数民族字母。当时,哈萨克斯坦,乌兹别克斯坦,邓甘,车臣族等族裔全部转向西里尔语。字母。

At the beginning of Mongolia's independence, under the influence of the Soviet Union's vigorous promotion of the Cyrillic alphabet, the Cyrillic alphabet was used to spell Mongolian in 1940. By 1946, the People’s Republic of Mongolia, known as the last supernumerary republic of the Soviet Union, used Cyrillic letters instead of the traditional Uighur Mongolian script.

蒙古独立之初,在苏联大力推广西里尔字母的影响下,西里尔字母在1940年被用来拼写蒙古语。到1946年,蒙古人民共和国被称为苏维埃最后一个多余的共和国。 Union,使用西里尔字母代替了传统的维吾尔族蒙古文字。

In terms of practical use, the Cyrillic alphabet is more suitable for the development of modern society than the Uighur alphabet.

在实际使用方面,西里尔字母比维吾尔字母更适合现代社会的发展。

First of all, the Uighur alphabet absorbed the elements of Central Asian Sogdian at the beginning of its creation. However, it was influenced by the writing habits of ancient Chinese characters from top to bottom, which resulted in the words of Uighur writing being spelled from top to bottom.

首先,维吾尔字母在创建之初就吸收了中亚苏格底语的元素。但是,它受古代汉字从上到下的书写习惯的影响,导致维吾尔族文字从上到下被拼写。

Uighur letters are not as distinct as English and Cyrillic letters. Each word has a backbone that connects all pronunciation letters. A single letter appears in different positions at the beginning, middle, and end of the word and has different writing methods. This is the beauty and vitality of traditional Mongolian. But in the modern society where horizontal typesett亚搏下注软件ing prevails, vertical writing seems out of place.

维吾尔字母不如英文和西里尔字母区分。每个单词都有一个连接所有发音字母的主干。单个字母出现在单词的开头,中间和结尾的不同位置,并且具有不同的书写方式。这就是传统蒙古人的美丽和生命力。但是在水平排版盛行的现代社会中,垂直书写似乎不合适。

Another reason is the beginning of the formation of the Mongolian nation, that is, when Genghis Khan unified Mongolia. There were many remnants of the Turkic and East Hu ethnic groups in the Mongolian plateau. The pronunciation and intonation of each tribe were different. This is reflected in the traditional Mongolian text. . There are seven vowels in Mongolian, but only five are written in traditional Mongolian. Moreover, traditional Mongolian also has disadvantages such as t and d, and unclear yin and masculine. Mongolian writing in Cyrillic is more standardized and Clear.

另一个原因是蒙古民族形成的开始,即成吉思汗统一蒙古。在蒙古高原,有许多突厥人和东胡族人的残余。每个部落的发音和语调都不同。这反映在传统的蒙古文字中。 。蒙古语有七个元音,但只有五个是用传统蒙古语书写的。此外,传统的蒙古语还具有t和d等缺点,阴阳气不清。西里尔文的蒙古文书写更加规范和清晰。

Different roads have made the use of characters in Inner and Outer Mongolia drift away. Mongolian users in China have gradually optimized and improved the Uighur Mongolian script, while Mongolia chose to write directly in Cyrillic to solve the problems of traditional characters once and for all. .

内蒙古和外蒙古的不同道路使字符的使用逐渐消失。中国的蒙古族用户已逐步优化和完善了维吾尔族蒙古文文字,而蒙古人选择直接用西里尔文书写以彻底解决传统字符的问题。 。

Both have their own advantages and disadvantages, and cannot be generalized, but in the sense of national cultural inheritance, Uighurs obviously have more advantages.

两者都有自己的优缺点,不能一概而论,但是从民族文化传承的角度来看,维吾尔族显然具有更多的优势。

This has also become one of the main reasons for the Mongolian language reform.

这也成为蒙古语改革的主要原因之一。

In the 1990s, both the republics in the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that were originally controlled by the Soviet Union experienced tremendous changes in their thinking. Although Mongolia is located in Asia, it is no exception.

在1990年代,最初由苏联控制的苏联和东欧国家的共和国的思想都发生了巨大变化。尽管蒙古位于亚洲,但也不例外。

The iron-and-blood policies implemented by the Soviet Union at the beginning of Mongolia’s independence, such as shooting religious figures in Mongolia, purging dissidents who opposed the Soviet Union, and large-scale expropriation of Mongolian materials during World War II were re-examined at the end of the 20th century. It became a painful memory of the Soviet era. The Cyrillic alphabet, which was once spread throughout the country, is also regarded as the Soviet Union’s cultural aggression against Mongolia.

苏联在蒙古独立之初就实行的铁血政策,例如在蒙古开枪射击宗教人物,清除反对苏联的异议人士,以及在第二次世界大战期间大规模征用蒙古的材料,在20世纪末进行了检查。它成为对苏联时代的痛苦记忆。曾经遍布全国的西里尔字母,也被视为苏联对蒙古的文化侵略。

On February 12, 1992, the Mongolian People’s Republic was renamed Mongolia, and the national flag and emblem were changed. That is, in this year, Russia withdrew from Mongolia the former Soviet army stationed here, and Mongolia moved towards true independence.

1992年2月12日,蒙古人民共和国更名为蒙古,国旗和国徽也发生了变化。也就是说,今年,俄罗斯从蒙古撤出了驻扎在这里的前苏联军队,蒙古走向了真正的独立。

During the period from 1992 to the beginning of the 21st century, Russia's economic and international status continued to decline, which affected the progress of Mongolian language reform. In order to eliminate the influence of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian Great Hural (Parliament) announced in 1992 that it would gradually resume the use of Uighur Mongolian script.

从1992年到21世纪初,俄罗斯的经济和国际地位持续下降,这影响了蒙古语改革的进程。为了消除苏联的影响,蒙古大呼拉尔(议会)在1992年宣布它将逐步恢复使用维吾尔族蒙古文字。

For decades, the research and use of traditional Mongolian characters by the Chinese Mongolian academic circles centered on the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, as well as the development of Uighur Mongolian printing technology and computer input methods, have allowed Mongolian scholars to see traditional Mongolian and modern An example of social integration.

数十年来,以中国内蒙古自治区为中心的中国蒙古学术界对蒙古传统字符的研究和使用,以及维吾尔族蒙古印刷技术和计算机输入方法的发展,使蒙古学者得以看到传统的蒙古语。和现代社会融合的一个例子。

In 2011, the Mongolian government issued regulations that government officials must use the Uighur Mongolian script when communicating with international agencies or foreign official agencies. Official documents such as birth and marriage certificates of Mongolian citizens and education certificates issued by educational institutions are written in Uighur Mongolian and Cyrillic Mongolian script side by side.

2011年,蒙古政府发布了法规,要求政府官员在与国际机构或外国官方机构进行交流时必须使用维吾尔族蒙古文字。蒙古族公民的出生,结婚证明和教育机构签发的教育证明等官方文件均以维吾尔族蒙古文和西里尔文蒙古文并排书写。

After Mongolian President Battulga was elected president, he accelerated the process of returning to traditional Mongolian and quickly popularized traditional Mongolian calligraphy among the people.

蒙古总统巴图加(Battulga)当选总统后,他加快了回归传统蒙古的进程,并迅速在人民中普及了传统蒙古书法。

On February 27 this year, Mongolia donated 30,000 sheep to China out of concern for the new crown epidemic in China. Only Uighur Mongolian script was used in relevant official documents, which released a strong signal for Mongolian script reform.

今年2月27日,出于对中国新的王冠流行的关注,蒙古向中国捐赠了30,000只绵羊。相关官方文件中仅使用了维吾尔族蒙古文字,这为蒙古文字改革发出了强烈信号。

On March 18 this year, Mongolia formally adopted the "National Outline for Mongolian Characters" and decided to fully resume the use of Uighur Mongolian characters from 2025.

今年3月18日,蒙古正式通过了《蒙古文字国家纲要》,并决定从2025年起全面恢复使用维吾尔族蒙古文字。

In a country that has used the Cyrillic alphabet for more than 70 years, the Mongolian character reform will undoubtedly be arduous and lengthy, and may even be tortuous, but as long as you start to change, there is hope for success. Just as Genghis Khan once said: Although the mountain is far away, as long as you walk step by step, one day will arrive.

在一个使用西里尔字母的国家已有70多年的历史了,蒙古语的字符转换无疑将是艰巨而漫长的,甚至可能是曲折的,但只要您开始改变,就有望获得成功。就像成吉思汗曾经说过的:尽管山很远,但是只要您一步一步走,一天就会到来。

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